Miramar High School
Improving Reading period 6
Current Events and Homework
There are no current calendar items.
chap 1 and 2 vocabulary words
Home work. This is due Monday 8/29 or Tuesday depending on period
Six types of context clues with examples
FCAT 2.0 vocabulary
The following glossary is a vocabulary list for Reading and language arts for Grades 3–10
Fcat Skills sheet contains
Common prefixes and suffixes
Tips and strategies for working out vocabulary meaning
Tips and strategies for identifying main Ideas and details
Patterns of organization
tips and strategies for recognizing text organization
Tips and strategies for working out authors purpose and viewpoint.
Strategies and tips for locating, organizing and interpreting information.
analyzing primary sources of information
Tips and strategies for checking the validity and reliability of information.
Tips and strategies for understanding cause and effects.
Fcat skills sheet
Anti- against antibody
Bi- two biped
Co- together coincide
De- away, off, down descend
Dis- not distasteful
En- in, on, into around endorse
In- into or not inflict, inactive
mid- middle midnight
multi- many multilayered
non- not non commercial
pre- before, ahead of predawn
pro- in favor of, forward profess, progress
re- back, again revert, realign
semi- half, part semiprivate
super- above, way above superabundance
sub- under, below average unconscious, unlock
un- not, opposite
-en to make happen,
made of waxen
-er person that performs
an action, more retailer, poorer
-ful full of harmful
-ish like childish
-ze cause to become dramatize
-less without mindless
-like resembling ladylike
-ment state of being astonishment
-ward in the direction of inward
-y resembling frosty
******USING GRAPHICS TO CONFIRM INFERENCES*******
Authors often use visual aids to illustrate their material. They may provide pictures to help you visualize information. They may use graphs or tables to present numerical information. It makes good reading sense to check that a graphic does confirm the points the author makes in the text
TIPS AND STRATEGIES FOR WORKING OUT VOCABULARY MEANINGS
1. always check to see if you can break down a new word into a prefix, root, and suffix. Try to recognize the meaning of any part of the word. If so find the answer choice that is closest to that meaning.
2. Use context clues to help you decipher meaning. Reread the part of the selection near the vocabulary word or expression. Read the sentence before and the sentence after. Decide what the word or expression probable means. **Look at the answer choices. Pick the choice that is most like what is guessed. ** Replace the vocabulary word or expression with the answer choice you picked. Read the new sentence. If the answer choice you guessed fits well, it is correct. If not try another choice.
3. If a passage contains a picture or graphic. Always check it out carefully. It may contain information that expands your understanding of the text.
TIPS AND STRATEGIES FOR IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS AND DETAILS
1. When you are asked about the main idea of a selection, ask yourself what point is the author trying to get across.
2. Be sure your answer is neither too broad and general, nor too narrow and specific. Do not give details. Find the idea that these details support.
3. Themes are rarely stated in the text. You have to figure them out.
4. To choose the best theme, look beyond the story details to a more general truth or lesson about life
PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION
Text may be organized in many ways. Chronological order; or information may be subdivided or highlighted by the use of bullets and headings an subheadings; or it may be grouped according to main ideas and their supporting details, or according to the causes an and results of events.
Information in a history text is usually presented chronological. Biographical passage also arrange their information in chronological sequence.
Organization based on questions and answers. This format may be used to present an issue or point of view. This allows the author to anticipate problems or disagreement and to respond to them. Sometimes the title of a book is a question which the author then answers in the body of text.
Sometimes the authors call or attention to how a text is organized by inserting headings subheadings, and bullets.
Bullets usually black dots, squares, or diamonds to the left of items in a list are a useful way of drawing attention to a list of points.
Headings and subheadings are used to divide a passage into sections. Often these headings summarize the content of a section and help us to grasp the main point of what follows.
TIPS AND STRATEGIES FOR RECOGNIZING TEXT ORGANIZATION
1. As you read a passage, analyze its organizational structure. This will make its meaning clearer to you.
2. Different kinds of text use different patters of organization. History and biography are usually written chronologically; scientific texts often employ a cause/effect format. Public issues are often represented in terms of questions an answers
3. Headings and subheadings summarize the information in the sections that follow them.
****Degree Order often used in informational text. The author presents the ideas in order of importance, usefulness, familiarity etc.
****spatial order- used to describe how something looks or its location. The details in a spatial order description might proceed from bottom to top, from left to right , or fro nearby to far away.
****Cause and effect. The main idea is supported by an explanation of why something happened and the result of its happening.
****Comparison and Contrast. The main idea is supported by ways the subjects are the same or different
****Descriptive- the main idea is supported by concrete details such as facts, examples, statistics, or vivid descriptions that illustrate the topic.
****Problem/solution-the main idea discusses a problem and the conclusion of the passage describes how the problem was or was not resolved. Details writing the passage further explain the problem. Problem/solution organization can also take a question/answer form, where a question is posed as the main idea and the conclusion of the passage works to answer the questions.
****Scenario-the main idea is supported by a scenario, either real or imaginary, that serves as an example that proves the main idea. The details within the scenario support the main idea. Authors often use interesting scenarios as an introduction to their articles, then refer to them in the rest of the article
****Time order-the main idea is supported by a series of events occurring in time.
****Flashback Usually used in literary texts. The author starts with a situation and then “flashes back” to earlier events
**** Foreshadowing-usually used in literary texts. Early on the author gives subtle hints of what will happen later. Example Little did Sheriff Roberts know that the child standing before him, hungry, forlorn, and dressed in rags, would one day save his life.
Transitional words and phrases for Organizational Pattern
Cause and effect as a result, because , for this reason, hence, since,
So that therefore,, then thus
Comparison & Comparison- like, likewise, as if, in, addition,
Contrast as though, in the same way
Contrast-although, however, but, instead,
Nevertheless, in contrast, on the other hand
Descriptive adjectives-filthy, shadowy, magnificent
Concrete nouns/verbs-thunderbolt, firefly, hawk
Soar, peel, exclaim
Directional words-above, behind, next to
Problem/solution is resolved, the cause, the problem, the effect, one
Solution, the result, question
Scenario this is an example, this shows,, this proves, this is evidence that, as shown by
Time Order Afterward, all the while, as soon as, before, during eventually, finally, first, second, meanwhile, then.
TIPS AND STRATEGIES FOR WORKING OUT AN AUTHORS
VIEWPOINT AND PURPOSE.
Types of Writing
Narrative – to tell a story
Descriptive- to illustrate a person, event, or place to convey (communicate)
Expository- to explain, illustrate, or present information
Persuasive- to express an opinion and convince readers to think/feel/act a
1. Look for negative or positive words that indicate how the author regards the topic.
2. When you have no word clues, read the passage carefully and decide on the overall impression. Ask yourself if you feel impressed or surprised, or shocked. This may help you understand the authors viewpoint.
3. The main reason authors write non-fictional passages is to inform. They may also hope to instruct, persuade, or entertain readers.
4. Where you read a selection can provide an important clue as to an authors purpose. Newspaper editorials are usually intended to persuade. School texts are intended to instruct.
5. It may help if you know who the author is. Humorous writers for example, probable to amuse and entertain you.
6. Here is a list of some of the persuasive techniques you may encounter.
• Giving effective examples
• Supplying quotes and opinions from experts
• Giving endorsements by well known people
• Using statistics
• Presenting scientific evidence and explanations
• Giving only one side of argument
• Using positive or negative language to stir up emotions
• Blaming opponents for real or imagined evils
• Stating opinions but making them sound like facts
STRATEGIES AND TIPS FOR LOCATING AND ORGANIZING & INTERPRETING INFORMATION.
1. useful reference sources.
• Some encyclopedias provide information about a wide range of information. Other’s specialize in particular areas. They arrange their information in alphabetical order.
• Atlases may have maps that over the whole world, or a particular area. Specialized atlases include historical atlases and road atlases.
• Telephone Yellow Pages group businesses according to the types of goods and services they provide.
2. Look carefully at the title and labels of maps , graphs, and charts.
• Graphs often have numbers at the bottom along the sides. Be sure to understand what the number stands for.
• Watch out for symbols, Use the key to make sure you know what they mean.
• Use map compass and scale to determine directions and distance.
Analyzing primary sources of information
Distinguish facts from opinion
Facts can be checked. If a meteorologist claims “Five inches of rain fell on southern Florida yester”, we can check the measurements of Miami’s rainfall to verify this statement.
An opinion is based on the writer’s feelings. It can’t be proven the way a fact can. Words like think, feel, and believe indicate that what you are reading is an opinion.
TIPS AND STRATEGIES FOR CHECKING THE VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF INFORMATION.
1. To spot facts (as opposed of opinions) ask yourself. Can this statement be checked or proven? If so it is a fact.
2. Here are some ways to spot opinions
• Does this statement express the writers personal feelings or judgment? If so it is an opinion
• Does the statement contain verbs that show emotions like feel, fear, or hope? Does it contain adjectives that show values, like good or bad? If so it is an opinion.
3. Be alert to incorrect assumptions. When evaluating the validity of a passage, ask yourself whether the authors statements are logical reasonable or far-fetched and irrational. Can their reliability be tested?
4. Verify that the authors position and conclusions are supported by the information contained in graphics and statistical tables.
TIPS AND STRATEGIES FOR UNDERSTANDING CAUSE AND EFFECTS
1. Watch out for key words that signal cause and effect. The words that follow the key word explain what caused something or what its effect was
2. When there are no key words ask yourself why an event occured(its cause), or what happened because of an event (its effect) The answer will be there in the passage.
TIPS AND STRATEGIES FOR IDENTIYING THE DIFFERENT ELEMENTS OF PLOT
1. analyze the plot to determine its central problem and resolution
2. Figure out where the story takes place. Look also for clues that tell you when the story takes place. Sometimes these clues let you know the time of day or time of year the story took place. They can also tell you if the story is set in the past present or future.
3. Decide how the setting reflects or changes the mood of the people in the story.
4. Notice how the author uses people’s behavior to develop a story to give the plot it’s meaning.
TIPS AND STRATEGIES FOR COMPARING AND CONTRASTING TEXT
1. When an author is using literary language such as imagery to compare two items, ask yourself what characteristics the two items share. For example, are they both beautiful or ugly, modern, or old-fashioned, lively or dull?
2. To compare aspects of different texts, take not of the element that the question asks you to compare. Then reread the passages, focusing on how this element is treated in each one.
1. TEXT- the reading passage
2. EXCERPT- a part of the reading passage
3. SUPPORT- use details from the text to explain your response
4. EVIDENCE- information that helps to prove or explain something
5. CONTRIBUTE- to help happen or help cause
6. SETTING- the time and place where something occurs
7. MAIN IDEA- the most important thing the writer wants to say
8. MAIN CHARACTER-the character that the reading passage is all about
9. SUMMARY-a short way of saying what the passage is about
10. PLOT-a series of related events that makes up a story
11. CONFLICT- a problem or a challenge
12. RESOLUTION-the solution to a problem
13. COMPLICATION-additional problems that makes a conflict harder to solve
14. CLIMAX-the most exciting and suspenseful moment in a story
15. CAUSE- the reason why something happens
16. EFFECT- what happens as a result of something
17. COMPARE-explain how things are the same
18. CONTRAST-explain how things are different
19. PURPOSE- the reason why someone does something
20. POINT OF VIEW-an opinion or the way someone looks at something
21. ATTITUDE-the way someone feels about something
22. PREDICT-to guess what will happen in the future based upon information stated in the reading passage.(answer not written in the text)
23. IMPLY-to hint at something without actually stating it (answer not written in the text)
24. INFER-to figure something out based upon information stated in the reading passage(answer not written in the text)
25. CONCLUDE-to make a decision based upon information in the reading passage
26. GENERALIZE-to make a statement based upon details from the reading passage that might be true in other situations.
27. SEQUENCE OF EVENTS- the main details or events in the order they occur
28. ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN- the way the information in the reading passage is organized or presented
29. TONE- the mood or emotion that comes through the text
30. THEME- the main idea or message that comes through a piece of literature
31. SIMILE- two unlike things compared using the words “like” or “as”
32. METAPHOR-a comparison where through figurative language two unlike things are show to be the same.(does not use “like or “as”)
33. PERSONIFICATION-giving human abilities to animals or non living things
34. HYPERBOLE-bold and obvious exaggeration.
If you took the time to go over this packet several times, memorize the FCAT terms, prefixes and suffixes and really go over the tips and strategies you should do excellently on the FCAT. Remember only you can change you…
All the best, Mrs. Hall-Rose.
STRATEGIES TO ASSIST WITH VOCABULARY
cpt/pert practice websites
Definition and examples of literary forms
fcat terms 1
fcat terms 2
Students choose a novel that was not made into a movie. They will complete 3 creative writing, 2 visuals, and a recommendation for the Novel.
Non-Fiction Literature/Living to tell the Tale
Looking at Gabriel Garcia Marquez' writing. He is known as the "Father of Realism," the genre of wring in which ordinary evens are interwoven with dreamlike, supernatural, and fantastic elements.
Head Trauma Article
Head Trauma article about a teenager who suffers a concussion.
hoops game authors purpose
category 2 authors purpose hoops game one or two persons
Miramar High School
novelposted on May 16, 2012